The average temperature recorded in the twenty-five years from 1991 to 2015 (13,9°C) is almost one degree higher than the average temperature recorded in the thirty-year period comprised between 1961 and 1990 (13°C).
Decreasing of the average rainfall
The yearly average rainfall decreased, passing from 830 mm to 789 mm: even if the variation in quantity is not so noticeable, the distribution changed, with rainfalls more concentrated in autumn and drier summer seasons.
Extreme meteorological events
Extreme meteorological events take place more frequently (e.g. a heavy snowfall in February 2012, a cloudburst in summer 2013): also minor events having less intensity but strong impact take place on a yearly basis.
Why has Kraków been chosen as a pilot site?
Different climate conditions in central and peripheral areas
Within the city, urban heat island effect causes a mean difference of air temperature of approximately 1.2 °C, which can sporadically reach up to 5-7 °C and precipitations are more frequent in the centre than in the periphery.
Since early 2000, severe rainstorm caused urban flooding, damage to roofs or traction of tram lines and losses in agriculture (silting fields, crop destruction), causing damages of many millions EUR.
Trees health conditions
Urban micro-climatic conditions cause constant shocks to plants and greenery: trees under such stress conditions grow slower, get ill and often die or get older faster and require continuous assessment of tree stability in order to ensure public safety.
With the contribution of the LIFE Programme of the European Union.