Pilot Areas

Rimini (Italy)

Why has Rimini been chosen as a pilot site?

Warmer temperatures

The average temperature recorded in the twenty-five years from 1991 to 2015 (13,9°C) is almost one degree higher than the average temperature recorded in the thirty-year period comprised between 1961 and 1990 (13°C).

Decreasing of the average rainfall

The yearly average rainfall decreased, passing from 830 mm to 789 mm: even if the variation in quantity is not so noticeable, the distribution changed, with rainfalls more concentrated in autumn and drier summer seasons.

Extreme meteorological events

Extreme meteorological events take place more frequently (e.g. a heavy snowfall in February 2012, a cloudburst in summer 2013): also minor events having less intensity but strong impact take place on a yearly basis.

Kraków (Poland)

Why has Kraków been chosen as a pilot site?

Different climate conditions in central and peripheral areas

Within the city, urban heat island effect causes a mean difference of air temperature of approximately 1.2 °C, which can sporadically reach up to 5-7 °C and precipitations are more frequent in the centre than in the periphery.

Tempestuous rainfalls

Since early 2000, severe rainstorm caused urban flooding, damage to roofs or traction of tram lines and losses in agriculture (silting fields, crop destruction), causing damages of many millions EUR.

Trees health conditions

Urban micro-climatic conditions cause constant shocks to plants and greenery: trees under such stress conditions grow slower, get ill and often die or get older faster and require continuous assessment of tree stability in order to ensure public safety.

Taipei (Taiwan)

Why has Taipei been chosen as a pilot site?


Typhoon is one of the most severe natural hazards and can cause great damages to the people and land, including trees, plants, and other green spaces of cities. Taiwan is one of the most typhoon exposed countries in the world.

Green spaces as vulnerable assets

Urban green spaces are highly prone to be affected by typhoons and cause massive danger to transportation and humans. Their features, combined with the characteristics of soils, allows determining whether trees in the urban green spaces will fail during the threat of typhoons.


Good knowledge of urban greenery can support decision-makers in identifying the most vulnerable parts of the city, improving the preparation of cities in case of extreme weather events, preserving the trees and the ecosystem benefits they provide.